While reading ‘Teaching Naked’ the use of Rubrics caught my attention because it is still new to me and I wanted to learn more of the effectiveness of the use of Rubrics in the classroom. “A rubric is a scoring tool that explicitly represents the performance expectations for an assignment or piece of work” (Carnegie Mellon University, Eberly Center, 2015). By using a rubric the work is divided into smaller parts with clear identifications of the various levels of mastery. The students will know upfront what the expectations are for an assignment and how to earn a certain grade. Although the initial input to create marking rubrics can be very time consuming, it can be easily adapted to suit different assignments. It teaches students to become more objective and thoughtful of the quality of their work. Rubrics provide students with detailed feedback on their assignments (TeachersFirst, 2016) REFLECTIVE: Baird & Northfield, (1992) claims that Student-grading, peer assessment, and self-assessment are terms that generally refer to “specific judgments of ratings made by pupils about their achievement, often in relation to teacher-designed categories” (p. 21). A study by Sadler & Good (2006) compared teacher-assigned grades to those awarded either by students to themselves or by their peers. They found that when grading others, students awarded lower grades to the best performing students than their teacher did. When grading themselves, lower performing students tended to inflate their own low. By training students to grade with the help of a scoring rubric, a very high correlation was obtained between students and their teacher on test questions (Sadler, 2006). There are indications that it could be difficult to get faculty to use a shared rubrics for marking (Bowen, 2012). It is suggested that this problem can be addressed by creating a rubrics for accreditation purposes to ensure the curriculum is aligned with the desired learning outcomes. The first time I had to use a rubrics for self-assessment as a student, I found it a bit intimidating initially, but after working through the materials and ultimately the rubrics, I knew what my level of mastery was with the content of the curriculum. INTERPRETIVE: My sense is that it is a great tool to improve my teaching by forcing me to clarify my pedagogical goals. Having to actually think about what the learning outcomes should be can clarify my objectives. Rubrics can give me a structure to provide more effective feedback to students, and identify the skills they're still lacking. In that sense a rubric also provides valuable information about which aspects of my course are working well, and which are not. Linda Hodges suggested that a well-made rubric can be effective against grade inflation. "Inflating grades is a natural consequence for when we really don't have clear expectations for student achievement—when we don't exactly know what caliber of work we should expect from students or how best to communicate those expectations to our students" Hodges (2014). If students know what it takes to get a certain grade, then there will be less pressure on teachers to inflate a student’s grade if the work fails to meet the criteria. DECISIONAL: In my classroom I will the use of Analytical Rubrics (University of Waterloo, Unknown) for grading of papers, projects, oral presentations and group projects. This type of Rubrics separates different assessment criteria and addresses them comprehensively. By giving students the marking rubrics at the beginning of the course, students can see exactly what the expectations and projected learning outcomes should be. In some cases my students will be given the opportunity to evaluate and grade themselves. My organization uses D2L. Therefore the course material and the marking rubrics will be available for students upfront to enable them to take responsibility for their own learning at their own pace. In my opinion, the use of Rubrics is effective because it serves as formative feedback for students and myself to guide learning efforts and to align the curriculum with the learning outcomes. It seems practical to involve students in the creation of the rubric to empower students for more focused and self-directed learning (TeachersFirst, 2016).
OBJECTIVE: Facebook is the world’s largest network site. Statistics in 2009 indicated that there were 22,867,140 teenagers and young adults using Facebook and that the student (and adult) population on Facebook is growing fast. With that many of students using this website, it is only logical for educators to incorporate learning into a website that students are so familiar with (Couillard, unknown). As of January 2014, 74% of online adults use social networking sites. 71% of online adults use Facebook. A study by Madge, Meek, Wellens, & Hooley (2009) indicated “social interaction” as the main reason that students use Facebook. The second reasons students use Facebook is for informal peer-to-peer learning. Most students have distractions such as video games, television, and the Internet. The task of the educator is to engage these students with more interactive, fun and media rich ways to learn, to grasp concepts and share ideas.
REFLECTIVE: Personally, I never considered using Facebook in the classroom because I felt that it would be an invasion of my privacy (personal life). Mazer et al. (2007) indicated that computer-mediated communication in an educational setting could have a positive effect on student-teacher relationships, which could, in turn, lead to more positive student outcomes. They define teacher self- disclosure as “sharing information about themselves, telling personal stories and conveying their personal beliefs”. There are some challenges the use of Facebook in Higher Education, such as privacy issues, that should be handled very carefully. Educators should conduct themselves in the most professional manner at all times, including their personal lives. Having students as Facebook friends could lead to potential problems that are easily avoidable. Towner, Van Horn, & Parker (2007) indicate that Facebook is becoming a learning network with structure and flexibility. Creating groups does not require students to become friends with the instructor and allow them to “join” in the virtual class. I can see that Facebook can be a great resource for students and teachers and a good tool for class related activities. A recent survey indicated that 56% of students surveyed stated that they use Facebook to contact students about things happening in class, to network, to get class notes, to set up meetings and to create study groups. The acceptance of social networking in the workplace worldwide is paving the way for education for this type of connected learning (Casey & Evans, 2011). I realize now, that creating a Facebook group for class could actively engage students, share content, interact, and build a sense of community.
INTERPRETIVE: With the everyday accessibility of the Internet the traditional classroom has been expanded with the rich amount of knowledge literally at our fingertips. Educational and learning goals are easier, faster and more efficiently obtainable than ever before. Students can connect with people all over the global and virtual classrooms are becoming increasingly common. I understand that the social networking aspect can enhance student motivation, affective learning and classroom climate (Muñoz & Towner, 2009).
DECISIONAL: With the change in technology, it is important for educators to keep up with the latest trends to ensure maximum success in teaching their students. I can see the benefits of integrating Facebook as a learning tool. It can help me connect with students outside the classroom about assignments, upcoming events, post useful links, and samples of work (Muñoz & Towner, 2009). This can also serve as a tool to notify students such as exams, quizzes or assignments. After carefully setting up the security to separate the class activities from my personal information I will explore moving out of my comfort zone and set up a Facebook group for my class to share information and to encourage students to form study groups. I will make it student centered and have students assigned as a group leader who will be responsible for monitoring the site to ensure posts are topic related. I would encourage students to ask each other questions and to provide support for students who may need it. References Bowen, J. (2012). Teaching Naked: How Moving Technology out of your classroom will improve student learning. San Francisco, CA: John Wiley & Sons. Casey, G. &. (2011). Designing for Learning: Online Social Networks as a Classroom Environment. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 12 (7), 1 - 26. Conley, C.S. (2015). "SEL in Higher Education." In J.A. Durlak, C.E. Domitrovich, R.P. Weissberg, & T.P. Gullotta (Eds.), Handbook of Social and Emotional Learning. New York: Guilford Press. Couillard, C. (unknown). Facebook: The Pros and Cons of use in Education. http://clairecouillard.weebly.com/uploads/5/1/9/8/5198042/research_paper_tcs_701.pdf . Dolphy, L. (2015, April 14). Social Network Sites: Facebook For Education? Retrieved July 07, 2016, from E-Learning Industry: https://elearningindustry.com/social-network-sites-facebook-for-education Madge, C., Meek, J., Wellens, J., & Hooley, T. (2009). Facebook, social integration and informal learning at university: 'It is more for socializing and talking to friends about work than for actually doing work'. Learning, Media and Technology, 34:2, 141-155. Mazer, J. P., Murphy, R. E., & Simonds, C. J. (2007). I'll See You On "Facebook": The Effects of Computer-Mediated Teacher Self-Disclosure on Student Motivation, Affective Learning, and Classroom Climate. Communication Education, 56:1, 1-17. Muñoz, C. L., & Towner, T. L. (2009). Opening Facebook: How to Use Facebook in the College Classroom. Society for Information Technology and Teacher Education Conference, (pp.1-13). Charleston. Towner, T. L., Van Horn, A., & Parker, S. L. (2007). Facebook: Classroom Tool for a Classroom Community? Midwestern Political Science Association, (pp. 1-18).
21st Century competencies
22 May 2016
“21st Century competencies include deep understanding, flexibility and the capacity to make creative connections and a range of so-called ‘soft skills’ including good team-working. (Dumont and Istance 2010).”
Objective: Reflecting on this quote made me look closer at the meaning behind these concepts. We are bombarded with information and changes in the 21st century. In today’s world there are high demands in problem solving. Softs skills such as deep understanding, flexibility, self-directed problem solving, teamwork and making creative connections are essential not only for problem solving in our work and personal lives, but also in continuous learning. So what does “deep understanding” mean? In essence, it is when a student internalize what they can do with their knowledge – to make the connections with their knowledge to solve current issues. To achieve a deep understanding, an individual must involve knowledge and past experiences and apply it to solve real problems (Trilling, 2009).
Reflective. After reflecting on this quote I realized that in this competitive world we are intellectually and socially challenged to survive and prosper, therefore we need a deep understanding of concepts and situations to live up to the challenge. We must continuously learn and apply new skills throughout our lives and careers. It is even more important to teach our students the skills that they need to become successful in their careers.
Interpretive. Many jobs nowadays are being automated or “off-shored”. In this fast-paced changing world it is essential for an adult learner to collaborate and adapt to change in order to solve problems. Students constantly need different skillsets. It is our challenge as educators to ensure that the adult learner is engaged in active learning by including intellectual, emotional, social or spiritual domains to develop required skills. Tony Wagner (2008) proposes that students need critical thinking and problem solving skills; collaboration and leadership; agility and adaptability; initiative and entrepreneurialism; and have the ability to access and analyze information.
Decisional. The insight that I gained from reflecting on this quote is that teachers need to flexible and adapt to the ever-changing demands – whether it is technological, methodology of delivering materials or the materials itself. As an instructor I would apply active learning techniques in delivering materials, and allow students to collaborate, discuss and debate in order to solve problems. By providing the students with an opportunity to deliver feedback, I will adapt my delivery methods to accommodate and incorporate assessment strategies to ensure the student understand the material and know how to apply to solve problems.
References Dumont, H., Istance, D. (2010). The nature of learning: Using research to inspire practice. Retrieved from https://www.oecd.org/edu/ceri/50300814.pdf Merriam, S.B. & Bierema, L.L. (2014). Adult Learning – Linking Theory and Practice. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Trilling, B. &. (2009). Learning for Life in our times. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Wagner, T. (2008). The Global Achievement Gap: Why Even our Best Schools Don’t Teach the New Survival Skills Our Children Need – and What We Can Do About It. New York: Basic Books.
Adaptation and change of the Educated person
12 May 2016
“An educated person is one who has learned how to learn...how to adapt and change.” (Merriam, & Bierema, 2014. P 31)
Objective. The word ‘change’ immediately caught my attention because I recently completed my MA in Leadership, Change and Innovation. Change is constant. With the fast paced globalized world that we live in, lifelong learning is crucial to stay competitive.
Reflective. I try to imagine what teaching and learning looked like in the early 1900’s? Watching the movie “The Age of Adaline” reminded me of how much the world and technology changed in the past century. It became evident that learning to adapt and change is really crucial for survival. This quote reminded me that learning is a continuous process and both the teacher and the learner need to adapt within our changing world.
Interpretive. I find it interesting to learn that the introduction of “student-centered learning” was introduced in the 1980’s where the teacher is seen as the facilitator rather than the dispenser of knowledge. I did not experience “student-centered learning while doing my Master’s degree. Although that online learning allowed somewhat flexibility in time, it was more structured, curriculum driven and in essence created a lot of pressure with time constraints. What drives humans to learning? Maslow (1970) assumed that humans learn to achieve self-actualization. Rogers (1983) expanded on this assumption, claiming that humans learn to become “fully functioning persons.” To be fully functional, you need to adapt to change. I guess that was my “Aha” moment.
Decisional. As an educator this quote inspired me to focus on the individual student and the delivery process. I would determine the learning styles of the students in the class and attempt to make lessons personal by adapting teaching styles to help the students achieve and develop to their maximum potential.
References Maslow, A. H. (1970). Motivation and personality. New York: Harper & Row. Merriam, S.B. & Bierema, L.L. (2014). Adult Learning – Linking Theory and Practice. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Rogers, C. (1983). Freedom to learn for the 80’s, 2nd ed. Columbus, OH: Merrill
2 May 2016
“…learning from one’s experience involves not just reflection, but critical reflection” (Merriam & Berea, 2011. p. 117).
Objective. This quote caught my attention because it made me wonder what critical reflection really means and how it differs from critical thinking. Critical thinking has more to do with logic, reasoning, and aligning one’s knowledge with reality while critical reflection creates connections between course content and the experience (Bart, 2011). Mezirow (1990) suggested that critical reflection helps students to evaluate and adjust their assumptions, which leads to transformative learning.
Reflective. From reflection on this quote I realized that I have been practicing critical reflection in my professional background. In Human Resources it is required to think wide and analytically to obtain useful background of situations that arise in the workplace. It is important to work in inclusive and collaborate ways and appreciate the knowledge other people generate to enhance processes in the future. As a result of this quote I realized that critical reflection should be developed and encouraged in learners to connect with, and understand the information presented. My parents always encouraged me to learn from our mistakes. Indirectly I was encouraged to reflect on past experiences to improve situations or behaviors in the future.
Interpretive. The insight that I got from this quote stresses the importance of the connection between knowing and understanding the subject. The “Aha” moment was when I realized this PIDP assignment provides practice for critical reflection on the quotes.
Decisional. As an educator this quote inspired me to allow my future students to learn through dialogue and to provide enough space for individuals to reflect and provide multiple perspectives. It is important to use reflective questioning in a language that is meaningful to students. By allowing students to do self-evaluation of group projects, they will learn to critically evaluate their work (and the work of others), which in turn will also improve their communication and conflict resolution skills and create a positive learning experience.
References Bart, M. (2011, May 11). Critical reflection adds depth and breadth to student learning. Faculty Focus. Retrieved from http://www.facultyfocus.com/articles/instructional-design/critical-reflection-adds-depth-and-breadth-to-student-learning/. Criticalthinking.org. (2013) Our Concept and Definition of Critical Thinking. Retrieved from: http://www.criticalthinking.org/pages/our-concept-of-critical-thinking/411 Dumont, H., Istance, D. (2010). The nature of learning: Using research to inspire practice. Retrieved from https://www.oecd.org/edu/ceri/50300814.pdf Fook, J. & Gardener, F., (2007). Practicing critical Reflection: A resource handbook. England: Open University Press, McGraw-Hill Education Merriam, S.B. & Bierema, L.L. (2014). Adult Learning – Linking Theory and Practice. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Mezirow, J. & Associates (1990). Fostering Critical Reflection in Adulthood: a guide to Transformative and Emancipatory Learning. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Persevering at online learning
30 April 2016
“Persevering at online learning is also affected by computer and information literacy, time management…online communication skills…self-esteem, feelings of belongingness in the online program and the ability to develop interpersonal skills with peers…” (Stavredes, 2011).
Objective. Maslow’s (1970) philosophy of humanism supports the assumption that the goal for humans to learn is self-actualisation (Rogers, 1983) on the other hand described the goal of learning as becoming a fully functioning person (Merriam & Bierema, 2014). Learning in today’s world is characterized by globalization. The digital world we live in increases the learning possibilities. “It is now possible for more people than ever to collaborate and compete in real time with more people on more different kinds of work from more different corners of the planet and on a more equal footing than at any previous time in the history of the world” (Friedman, 2007). The big challenge in online learning now is persevering! I guess Stavredes’ quote caught my attention immediately because I just completed my Master’s degree in Leadership, Innovation and Change online a few months ago. Shortly after I enrolled in that course, I realized that online learning requires high levels of self-discipline, organizational and time management skills.
Reflective. My recent experience as an online student resonated with this quote from Stavrede! Pressures from working full time and taking care of the family and house made it really difficult to persevere. It was only after I attended the compulsory residency week at the university and had the opportunity to meet my fellow students and educators in person that the sense of belonging kicked in. Although the purpose the residency week was to prepare students for the dissertations, many students felt that it would have been beneficial if we had the opportunity to meet in person at an earlier stage during the course to establish relationships and provide support and encouragement to each other. Discussion boards and online forums can be very intimidating and without the sense of belonging, self-esteem plays a major role in persevering in online learning. As human beings we need to feel safe and to belong (Maslow, 1970).
Interpretive. The “aHa!” moment was realizing that the challenges of online learning is universal. I was not alone after all! That being said, it is not mere the building of relationships and creating the sense of belonging that would guarantee success in online learning. It takes computer skills, time management and self-motivation to persevere (Stavredes, 2011).
Decisional. As an educator I would aim that everyone taking the online class are comfortable with the computer competency level required. Establishing a sense of belonging very early in the course is of utmost importance to build relationships and create a sense of belonging (Stavredes, 2011). References Friedman, T.L. (2007). The world is flat: A Brief History of the Twenty-first Century, 3rd ed. New York – Picador / Farrar, Straus and Giroux. Maslow, A. H. (1970). Motivation and personality. New York: Harper & Row. Merriam, S.B. & Bierema, L.L. (2014). Adult Learning – Linking Theory and Practice. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Rogers, C. (1983). Freedom to learn for the 80s, 2nd ed. Columbus, OH: Merrill Stavredes, T. (2011). Developing Cognitive, Social, and Teaching Presence Online. 27th Annual Conference on Distance Teaching & Learning. The Board of Regents of the University of Wisconsin System. Stavredes, T. (2011). Effective online teaching: Foundations and strategies for student success. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass